Internet Accessibility / Usability Resources F-W

See also: Internet Accessibility / Usability Resources A-E

  • Fahrner Image Replacement (FIR) FIR is a standards-compliant technique that uses stylesheets and ordinary HTML to provide a visible image, usually consisting of text. The CSS specifies that the image will display in most cases; if it should not display for some reason, the underlying structural HTML markup is supposed to take its place… Because it does not nest an image inside a heading, FIR is at least superficially better for accessibility.
  • Flash accessibility
    • Adobe Accessibility Resource Center. Need your Web site Section 508 compliant? Get information and tools to make your web pages accessible, including the ability to test your Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Flash, and Shockwave files.
    • Can Flash be made accessible? Yes: JK Rowling Flash website – Case study – Web Access Centre (.pdf)

      The J.K. Rowling accessible website was launched in July 2005 and is recognised as one of the most advanced and accessible Rich Media experiences, pioneering new accessibility features for disabled, blind and partially sighted internet users.

    • Creating Accessible Flash Content WebAIM article, last updated: Sep 24, 2013.
  • Flickering content or high contrast oscillating patterns may trigger Photosensitive Epilepsy, an article from Juicy Studio about the need to avoid flickering Web content, using photosensitive epilepsy as the basis for discussion.
  • Floatutorial Maxdesign's step-by-step guide shows how to float elements such as images, drop caps, and next and back buttons to create image galleries, inline lists, and multicolumn layouts.
  • How People with Disabilities Use the Web provides scenarios and descriptions for how different types of disabilities affect Web use.
  • IBM Accessibility Research Contains information on how to make websites accessible as well as build accessible software.
  • International Association of Accessibility Professionals (IAAP) is dedicated to the concept of accessibility for all participants. We recognize that our work promoting the development of an accessibility profession can never be complete unless all people can engage in education, networking and certification opportunities. We will work both to deliver accessible information and services and to continually improve in areas where new accessibility barriers are identified.
  • Jim Thatcher accessibility consulting
  • JuicyStudio is a Luminosity Colour Contrast Ratio Analyser that promotes best practices for making websites accessible for all.
  • Knowbility supports the independence of children and adults with disabilities by promoting the use and improving the availability of accessible information technology.
  • Making Information Accessible, the SAIF Standards for Disability Information and Advice Provision in Scotland. [UK]
  • Usability Guidelines for Accessible Web Design by the Nielsen Norman Group
  • Microsoft Accessibility. Includes accessibility information for developers.
  • "Research-Based Web Design & Usability (21 MB .pdf) U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. The Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines, Enlarged/Expanded edition. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.  Updated
  • Resources for the Hearing Impaired FREE…add a signer module to your software, a math test, and other educational learning modules. "Learning in Motion is proud to pioneer the research and development of educational software. By-products of our development role are modules of code and functionality we're happy to share. Sample our tools for deaf and hard-of-hearing. These free tools and resources are available for projects or personal use."
  • Level Access, the digital accessibility rock stars (formerly SSB Bart Group, formerly SSB Technologies, Inc.,) has an unparalleled history in helping achieve compliance for regulations and standards such as ADA, Section 508, WCAG, VPAT, CVAA, AODA. They have worked with many regulatory and standards-developing organizations in an advisory capacity, including the U.S. Access Board, Federal Communications Commission and the World Wide Web Consortium.

    Software design, integration, analytics, and monitoring; FREE Demand Letter Risk Assessment, Training webinars

    • FREE Online Page Checker, Accessible Color Picker, Color Contrast Checker
    • Download FREE web accessibility test tools by Level Access Automatic Testing,
      in an Instant for Firefox and Chrome, Accessible Color Picker for Chrome, Continuous Accessibility Testing for Java and Javascript, Continuum Explorer for Chrome, Check Web Accessibility on five individual pages; upgrade for a full site scan)
  • Side by Side WCAG vs. 508 comparison
  • Technology and Information Accessibility from American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)
  • The Paciello Group accessible interface design help for government agencies, technology vendors, e-commerce corporations, and educational institutions
  • Universal Design Education Online
  • U.S. Government Website Accessibility Guidelines. This is an annotated table created to assist NASA webmasters in the goal of making all Government websites accessible to persons with disabilities.
  • Web Views – iOS – Human Interface Guidelines
  • W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
  • W3C Accessibility Standards Overview
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 W3C Recommendation 05 June 2018
  • Quick Reference to How to Meet the New W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 requirements (success criteria) and techniques.
  • WAI-ARIA Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications
  • WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.2 W3C Working Draft 18 December 2019
  • WAVE – WebAIM's Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool is a suite of evaluation tools that helps authors make their web content more accessible to individuals with disabilities. WAVE can identify many accessibility and Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) errors, but also facilitates human evaluation of web content.
  • Web Accessibility in Mind (WebAIM) has excellent information for the Web designer for accessible sites. The site provides tools and items to consider when designing for the following disability types:
  • "Wired Seniors: A fervent few, inspired by family ties", by Susannah Fox, et al., from the Pew Research Center, Internet and Technology, 9 September 2001, found that four million Americans aged 65 and over were online, sending e-mail to family members and surfing for important information. Demographics research report from the Pew Internet & American Life Project. By now, that number has increased significantly.
  • World Usability Day Observed each year, it has a specific focus and is honored around the world on the second Thursday of the month of November.
  • World Wide Web Usability special issue International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) (1997) 47(1) 1-222 [United Kingdom]
  • Word to HTML conversion tool: CZ Document Converter

Participate in the face-to-face meeting of the W3C WAI EOWG

Message received from Shawn Henry

The W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) Education and Outreach Working Group (EOWG) will be meeting face-to-face on 1-2 November 2010 in Lyon, France. We plan to work on enhancing functionality of "How to Meet WCAG 2.0", redesigning the WAI website, expanding training materials, and updating evaluation resources. If you are interested in participating in EOWG, coming to this face-to-face meeting would be a good opportunity to learn more about the group. If you might want to attend, please give me a call at +1-617-395-7664 or e-mail email hidden; JavaScript is required *by Wednesday 20 October*.

W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) welcomes participation from individuals and organizations to help make the Web more accessible to people with disabilities. WAI's Education and Outreach Working Group (EOWG) is looking for participants from industry, disability organizations, accessibility research, government, and others interested in Web accessibility. We are specifically looking for web accessibility advocates, developers, trainers, educators, evaluators, researchers, and editors to help EOWG with:
* copyediting
* drafting documents and incorporating group feedback, as a lead editor
* user interface / user interaction design
* CSS, javascript, and other development
* wiki editing
* print design
* testing with assistive technologies and adaptive strategies

You can work with WAI education and outreach through:

1. Joining the EOWG mailing list and commenting on documents in development.
To sign up for the EOWG mailing list, follow the instructions at

2. Joining as an active participant in the Working Group by committing 4 or more hours per week to EOWG work.
If you are considering this option, please read the information at and contact me to schedule a time to discuss your possible participation.

For more information on Participating in WAI generally, including a list of other Working Groups, please see

Feel free to contact me if you have any questions.

~Shawn Henry, EOWG Chair

Shawn Lawton Henry
W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
e-mail: email hidden; JavaScript is required
phone: +1.617.395.7664