William’s Syndrome

Williams syndrome, also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth delays before and after birth (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation), short stature, a varying degree of mental deficiency, and distinctive facial features that typically become more pronounced with age. Such characteristic facial features may include a round face, full cheeks, thick lips, a large mouth that is usually held open, and a broad nasal bridge with nostrils that flare forward (anteverted nares). Affected individuals may also have unusually short eyelid folds (palpebral fissures), flared eyebrows, a small lower jaw (mandible), and prominent ears. Dental abnormalities may also occur including abnormally small, underdeveloped teeth (hypodontia) with small, slender roots.

Williams syndrome may also be associated with heart (cardiac) defects, abnormally increased levels of calcium in the blood during infancy (infantile hypercalcemia), musculoskeletal defects, and/or other abnormalities.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)


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Learn more about genetics on our Genetic Disorders page.

Synonyms of Williams Syndrome

  • Beuren Syndrome
  • Early Hypercalcemia Syndrome with Elfin Facies
  • Elfin Facies with Hypercalcemia
  • Hypercalcemia-Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis
  • WBS
  • Williams-Beuren Syndrome
  • WMS

Tourette Syndrome

  • Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: Overview and Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment by James E. Swain, M.D., Ph.D., FRCPS and James F. Leckman, M.D. Published in Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2005 Jul; 2(7): 26–36. Published online 2005 Jul. from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH
  • Tourette Syndrome Treatments  New

    Although there is no cure for Tourette Syndrome (TS), there are treatments to help manage the tics caused by TS. Many people with TS have tics that do not get in the way of their living their daily life and, therefore, do not need any treatment. However, medication and behavioral treatments are available if tics cause pain or injury; interfere with school, work, or social life; or cause stress. A recently developed behavioral treatment is the Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT).

    CDC National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Tourette Association of AmericaFounded in 1972 in Bayside New York, the national Tourette Syndrome Association is the only national voluntary non-profit membership organization in this field. Our mission is to identify the cause of, find the cure for and control the effects of Tourette Syndrome. We offer resources and referrals to help people and their families cope with the problems that occur with TS. We raise public awareness and counter media stereotypes about TS. Our membership includes individuals, families, relatives, and medical and allied professionals working in the field.
  • Tourette Syndrome symptoms and treatment from the Mayo Clinic