- Arteriolosclerotic Leucoencephalopathy in the Elderly (ALE) from the National Library of Medicine (NIH). ALE is characterized by white matter lesions associated with atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis. Mild lesions are focal and probably represent early status cribosus or incomplete lacunar infarcts.
ALE is common in old age and is probably the cause of leuko-araiosis in most CT scans in the elderly. ALE may be asymptomatic. The severity of white matter changes may not be related to the severity of neurological deficit. Multiple lacunar infarcts or associated degenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's disease) may be the main cause of dementia in patients with ALE.
- "Leukoencephalopathy in Patients With Ischemic Stroke" by J. Bogousslavsky, M.D., F. Regli, M.D., and A. Uske, M.D. Stroke 1987 Sep-Oct;18(5):896-899. DOI: 10.1161/01.str.18.5.896. PMID: 3629648.
Studies suggest that hypertension may be more strongly associated with leukoencephalopathy than with deep infarcts. In acute stroke patients, leukoencephalopathy on CT should not be considered a fortuitous finding. Published in the journal of the American Heart Association / American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA).
- Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter from the National Library of Medicine's MedLinePlus. Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is a genetic progressive disorder that mainly affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). This disorder causes deterioration of the central nervous system's white matter, which consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin. Myelin is the fatty substance that insulates and protects nerves.
- "Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in an immunocompetent patient with favourable outcome. A case report." by Halvor Naess, Solveig Glad, Anette Storstein, Christine H Rinaldo, Sverre J Mørk, Kjell-Morten Myhr & Hans Hirsch . BMC Neurology, 18May2010.
Learn 3 things to ask if you think someone might be having a stroke
Check for stroke using the FAST system. Ask the person to
- Smile [check to see if it is straight or crooked]
- Raise your hands [check to see if the hands are raised to an even level]
- Speak: “It’s a sunny day outside.” [check to see if it is clear or slurred]
Will these 3 tests accurately diagnose ALL strokes?
A: Nothing is perfect, not even sophisticated medical tests. These are the five symptoms The American Stroke Association says are the warning signs of a stroke:
- Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side
- Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding
- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
- Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
If a person exhibits any of the above symptoms OR can’t pass the 3 tests then get emergency medical treatment immediately.
See the following links in addition to our lists of resources on this website.
- Stroke Treatment & Recovery
- Regaining Sight After a Stroke
- Brain Injury & Traumatic Brain Injury Resources
- Traumatic Brain Injury Area of Focus
- Download the PDF Five Things to Know About Stroke (.pdf)
- American Stroke Month Infographic: 5 Ways to Reduce Stroke Risk from the the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. F.A.S.T. infographic with stroke warning signs: Face drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulty, Time to call 9-1-1. Copyright American Heart Association 2020, May 2020.
- Strokes can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Learn how to safeguard yourself against stroke, from the CDC National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. May is National Stroke Awareness Month.
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
- American Stroke Association
- Stroke Signs and Symptoms from the CDC New
- Stroke Warning Signs and Symptoms from the American Stroke Association
- Stroke Treatments
- Stroke in Children New
- Types of Aphasia
- What Is an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)?
- Brain Stem Stroke
- What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms
- Ischemic Strokes (Clots)
- TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)
- Hemorrhagic Strokes (Bleeds)