Myoclonus

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Myoclonus refers to sudden, brief involuntary twitching or jerking of a muscle or group of muscles. The twitching cannot be stopped or controlled by the person experiencing it. Myoclonus is not a disease itself, rather it describes a clinical sign. Myoclonic jerks may occur in the following scenarios:

  • Either alone or in sequence, in a pattern of movement or without pattern
  • Infrequently or many times per minute
  • In response to an external event or when a person attempts to make a movement
  • Myoclonus from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).  New

    Myoclonus (184 KB .pdf)

    • What is myoclonus?
    • Who is more likely to get myoclonus?
    • How is myoclonus diagnosed and treated?
    • What are the latest updates on myoclonus?
    • How can I or my loved one help improve care for people with myoclonus?
    • Where can I find more information about myoclonus?
  • Drug-Induced Myoclonus: Frequency, Mechanisms and Management by Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Inmaculada Puertas, and María de Toledo-Heras (136 KB .pdf).  New
  • Action Myoclonus–Renal Failure Syndrome. Action myoclonus–renal failure (AMRF) syndrome causes episodes of involuntary muscle jerking or twitching (myoclonus) and, often, kidney (renal) disease. Although the condition name refers to kidney disease, not everyone with the condition has problems with kidney function. When kidney problems occur, an early sign is excess protein in the urine (proteinuria). Kidney function worsens over time, until the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively (end-stage renal disease). MedlinePlus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH).
  • Myoclonus Causes and Symptoms from the Mayo Clinic.
  • Myoclonus (Muscle Twitch) from the Cleveland Clinic.
  • What is Myoclonus? by WebMD.

Spasmodic Torticollis / Dystonia

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  • Spasmodic torticollis. The condition is also referred to as "cervical dystonia".
  • Dystonia from the Parkinson's Foundation.  New
  • Dyskinesia from the Parkinson's Foundation.  New
  • Dystonia Medical Research Foundation (DMRF) Since 1976, the DMRF has grown from a small family-based foundation into a dynamic membership-driven organization led by a Board of Directors and network of volunteers with personal connections to dystonia. Because dystonia hits so close to home for our directors and volunteers, the DMRF leadership is motivated by an unrelenting drive to find a cure and an unwavering commitment to serving people affected by dystonia.
  • Dystonia – Symptoms and causes – Mayo Clinic. Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes the muscles to contract involuntarily. This can cause repetitive or twisting movements. The condition can affect one part of your body (focal dystonia), two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia), or all parts of your body (general dystonia). The muscle spasms can range from mild to severe. They may be painful, and they can interfere with your performance of daily tasks.  New
  • MedlinePlus: Dystonia MedlinePlus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes involuntary contractions of your muscles. These contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements. Sometimes they are painful. Dystonia can affect just one muscle, a group of muscles or all of your muscles. Symptoms can include tremors, voice problems or a dragging foot. Symptoms often start in childhood. They can also start in the late teens or early adulthood. Some cases worsen over time. Others are mild.
  • The Dystonia Society The Dystonia Society was established in 1983 by a small group of people affected by dystonia, with the support of the late Professor David Marsden. The Society was established to promote the welfare of people who are affected by any form of the neurological movement disorder known as dystonia. The Society aims to do this by promoting awareness of the disorder, by supporting research and by undertaking welfare initiatives. It does this on a national level and through its network of local support groups. [UK]
  • National Spasmodic Torticollis Association Inc. (NSTA) The mission of the National Spasmodic Torticollis Association is to support the needs and well being of affected individuals and families; to promote awareness and education; to advance research for more treatments and ultimately a cure.  Updated
  • Spasmodic Torticollis Recovery Clinic, Inc. S.T.R.C. provides natural, non-medical, individualized education and therapy for people suffering with Spasmodic Torticollis/Cervical Dystonia globally (ST/CD).
  • Torticollis by the Cleveland Clinic.