Developmental Disabilities

  • Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) U.S. Government organization responsible for implementation of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, known as the DD Act. ADD, its staff and programs, are part of the Administration for Community Living, of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Council for Learning Disabilities (CLD) is an international organization that promotes evidence-based teaching, collaboration, research, leadership, and advocacy. CLD is comprised of professionals who represent diverse disciplines and are committed to enhancing the education and quality of life for individuals with learning disabilities and others who experience challenges in learning.
  • Developmental Disabilities Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. About one in six children in the U.S. have one or more developmental disabilities or other developmental delays. Facts, Milestones and screening, Causes and Risk Factors, Who is affected, Living with a developmental disability. Selected Conditions: Information on certain disabilities, developmental disorders, and related conditions, Research & Tracking, Materials & Multimedia, Additional Resources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • Developmental Delay in Children by the Cleveland Clinic. Most developmental delays will resolve on their own over time. With early intervention services, your child should be able to catch up to their peers and reach their full potential.  New
  • Developmental Disabilities Resource Center provides leading-edge services that create opportunities for people with developmental disabilities and their families to participate fully in the community.
  • NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
  • Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development has been opening doors and transforming the lives of children and adults with disabilities through research, training, and innovative services for more than 50 years. We are a national Eunice Kennedy Shriver Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center (IDDRC). More than 200 researchers representing 34 departments of Vanderbilt University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center bring their expertise to understanding how humans develop and to finding solutions to developmental challenges. We serve Tennessee and the Mid-South as a University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service (UCEDD). We train health care professionals through the Vanderbilt Consortium Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities (LEND) program. We address autism through the Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD).  Updated
  • J. P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre University of Alberta Department of Educational Psychology [Canada]
  • National Association of Councils on Developmental Disabilities (NACDD) is a national, member-driven organization consisting of 55 State and Territorial Councils. NACDD advocates and continually works towards positive system change on behalf of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families.
  • NY State Office for People with Developmental Disabilities is an independent, New York State government agency charged with improving the quality of life for New Yorkers with disabilities and protecting their rights.
  • President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities (PCPID) provides advice concerning intellectual disabilities to the President or the Secretary of Health and Human Services. PCPID also provides advice to the President concerning expansion of educational opportunities, promotion of homeownership, assurance of workplace integration, improvement of transportation options, expansion of full access to community living, and increasing access to assistive and universally designed technologies.
  • RH Incompatibility (also known as the Rhesus factor) can cause developmental abnormalities to children following a first normal pregnancy because of damage to the brain if the condition is not detected early and treated during the pregnancy. Hemolytic anemia is a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Without enough red blood cells, the fetus won't get enough oxygen. This can lead to serious problems such as anemia, brain damage, jaundice, and heart damage in second- and third-born children. Additional pregnancies may end with the death of the fetus.

    …Each of the four blood types [A, B, AB, O] is additionally classified according to the presence of another protein on the surface of the [red blood cells (RBCs)] that indicates the Rh factor. If you carry this protein, you are Rh positive. If you don't carry the protein, you are Rh negative. If a woman who is Rh negative and a man who is Rh positive conceive a baby, there is the potential for a baby to have a health problem.

    Rh incompatibility usually isn't a problem if it's the mother's first pregnancy because, unless there's some sort of abnormality, the fetus's blood does not normally enter the mother's circulatory system during the course of the pregnancy.

    However, during delivery, the mother's and baby's blood can intermingle. If this happens, the mother's body recognizes the Rh protein as a foreign substance and can begin producing antibodies (protein molecules in the immune system that recognize, and later work to destroy, foreign substances) against the Rh proteins introduced into her blood.

    Other ways Rh-negative pregnant women can be exposed to the Rh protein that might cause antibody production include blood transfusions with Rh-positive blood, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy.

    Rh antibodies are harmless until the mother's second or later pregnancies. If she is ever carrying another Rh-positive child, her Rh antibodies will recognize the Rh proteins on the surface of the baby's blood cells as foreign, and pass into the baby's bloodstream and attack those cells. This can lead to swelling and rupture of the baby's RBCs. A baby's blood count can get dangerously low when this condition, known as hemolytic or Rh disease of the newborn, occurs.

    Rh incompatibility rarely causes complications in a first pregnancy and does not affect the health of the mother. But Rh antibodies that develop during subsequent pregnancies can be potentially dangerous to mother and child. Rh disease can result in severe anemia, jaundice, brain damage, and heart failure in a newborn. In extreme cases, it can cause the death of the fetus because too many RBCs have been destroyed.

    If you're not sure what your Rh factor is and think you're pregnant, it's important to start regular prenatal care as soon as possible – including blood-type testing.

  • Cognitive Disabilities Part 1: We Still Know Too Little, and We Do Even Less
  • Cognitive Disabilities Part 2: Conceptualizing Design Considerations
  • American Academy of Neurology
  • American Stroke Association, is a division of the American Heart Association. Their Web site has information about risk assessment, prevention, treatment, recovery, caregiving, stroke family support information, and the usual "other."
  • The Brain Attack Coalition. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) has facilitated the activities of the BAC for over 30 years, and participates in the BAC as a non-voting member. The Brain Attack Coalition (BAC) is dedicated to improving prevention, advancing treatment, and enhancing recovery to eliminate the burden of stroke. The BAC is a group of non-profit professional, voluntary, and/or governmental agencies dedicated to setting direction, advancing knowledge, and communicating the best practices to prevent and treat stroke. BAC members as of FY2023:
    • American Academy of Neurology
    • American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
    • American Association of Neurological Surgeons
    • American College of Emergency Physicians
    • American Society of Neuroradiology
    • American Stroke Association/American Heart Association
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Food and Drug Administration
    • National Association of EMS Physicians/ National Association of State EMS Officials
    • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • Neurocritical Care Society
    • Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery
    • Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
    • Stroke Belt Consortium
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs


  • Hypergraphia, a driving compulsion to write (or create in another media such as painting, blogging, etc.). [from Wikipedia.]  Updated
  • PEAT™ (Planning and Execution Assistant and Training System) is a program designed to provide cueing and planning assistance for people with memory and attention disorders.
  • Cognitive Disability Devices: ISAAC™ fully individualized cognitive prosthetic system
  • Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is epilepsy that is characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the temporal lobe of the brain. This activity does not cause grand mal seizures; rather, it causes unusual behaviors and patterns of cognition. [from Wikipedia.]  Updated
  • Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) is a national non-profit, tax-exempt (Section 501(c)(3)) organization providing education, advocacy and support for individuals with ADHD. In addition to our informative website, CHADD also publishes a variety of printed materials to keep members and professionals current on research advances, medications, and treatments affecting individuals with ADHD.
    • Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2001, July). "The Disorder Named AD/HD", by CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter from the National Library of Medicine's MedLinePlus. Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is a genetic progressive disorder that mainly affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). This disorder causes deterioration of the central nervous system's white matter, which consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin. Myelin is the fatty substance that insulates and protects nerves. For more information, see our page Different Types of Leukoencephalopathy.  Updated
  • "Research: Paying Attention." by Lisa Fine, (9 May 2001) in Education Week. Download the PDF of the report.  Updated
  • Kutscher, M. L. and Pruder, Douglas (2003). ADHD—Living Without Brakes The Tip of the Iceberg.
  • Hallowell, Edward M. (1997, May/June). "What I've Learned from ADD." Psychology Today. Download the PDF.  Updated
  • Neimark, Jill. (1995, January/February). "It's Magical. It's Malleable. It's…memory…" Psychology Today. Download the PDF.  Updated
  • Talan, Jamie. (1998, July/August). "My Brain Belongs to Daddy." Psychology Today. Download the PDF.  Updated

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