- Fahrner Image Replacement (FIR) FIR is a standards-compliant technique that uses stylesheets and ordinary HTML to provide a visible image, usually consisting of text. The CSS specifies that the image will display in most cases; if it should not display for some reason, the underlying structural HTML markup is supposed to take its place… Because it does not nest an image inside a heading, FIR is at least superficially better for accessibility.
- Flash accessibility
- Adobe Accessibility Resource Center. Need your Web site Section 508 compliant? Get information and tools to make your web pages accessible, including the ability to test your Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Fireworks, Flash, and Shockwave files.
- Can Flash be made accessible? Yes: JK Rowling Flash website – Case study – Web Access Centre (.pdf)
The J.K. Rowling accessible website was launched in July 2005 and is recognised as one of the most advanced and accessible Rich Media experiences, pioneering new accessibility features for disabled, blind and partially sighted internet users.
- Creating Accessible Flash Content WebAIM article, last updated: Sep 24, 2013 New
- Flickering content or high contrast oscillating patterns may trigger Photosensitive Epilepsy, an article from Juicy Studio about the need to avoid flickering Web content, using photosensitive epilepsy as the basis for discussion.
- Floatutorial Maxdesign's step-by-step guide shows how to float elements such as images, drop caps, and next and back buttons to create image galleries, inline lists, and multicolumn layouts.
- How People with Disabilities Use the Web provides scenarios and descriptions for how different types of disabilities affect Web use.
- IBM Accessibility Research Contains information on how to make websites accessible as well as build accessible software.
- International Association of Accessibility Professionals (IAAP) is dedicated to the concept of accessibility for all participants. We recognize that our work promoting the development of an accessibility profession can never be complete unless all people can engage in education, networking and certification opportunities. We will work both to deliver accessible information and services and to continually improve in areas where new accessibility barriers are identified.
- Jim Thatcher accessibility consulting
- JuicyStudio is a Luminosity Colour Contrast Ratio Analyser that promotes best practices for making websites accessible for all.
- Knowbility supports the independence of children and adults with disabilities by promoting the use and improving the availability of accessible information technology.
- Making Information Accessible, the SAIF Standards for Disability Information and Advice Provision in Scotland. [UK]
- Usability Guidelines for Accessible Web Design by the Nielsen Norman Group
- Microsoft Accessibility. Includes accessibility information for developers.
- "Research-Based Web Design & Usability U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. The Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines, Enlarged/Expanded edition. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006. Also available in PDF format (21 MB .pdf)
- Resources for the Hearing Impaired FREE…add a signer module to your software, a math test, and other educational learning modules. "Learning in Motion is proud to pioneer the research and development of educational software. By-products of our development role are modules of code and functionality we're happy to share. Sample our tools for deaf and hard-of-hearing. These free tools and resources are available for projects or personal use."
- Level Access, the digital accessibility rock stars (formerly SSB Bart Group, formerly SSB Technologies, Inc.,) has an unparalleled history in helping achieve compliance for regulations and standards such as ADA, Section 508, WCAG, VPAT, CVAA, AODA. They have worked with many regulatory and standards-developing organizations in an advisory capacity, including the U.S. Access Board, Federal Communications Commission and the World Wide Web Consortium.
Software design, integration, analytics, and monitoring; FREE Demand Letter Risk Assessment, Training webinars
- FREE Online Page Checker, Accessible Color Picker, Color Contrast Checker New
- Download FREE web accessibility test tools by Level Access Automatic Testing,
- Side by Side WCAG vs. 508 comparison New
- Technology and Information Accessibility from American Foundation for the Blind (AFB)
- The Paciello Group accessible interface design help for government agencies, technology vendors, e-commerce corporations, and educational institutions
- Universal Design Education Online.
- U.S. Government Website Accessibility Guidelines. This is an annotated table created to assist NASA webmasters in the goal of making all Government websites accessible to persons with disabilities.
- Web Views – iOS – Human Interface Guidelines New
- W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
- W3C Accessibility Standards Overview New
- Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 W3C Recommendation 05 June 2018 New
- Quick Reference to How to Meet the New W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 requirements (success criteria) and techniques. New
- WAI-ARIA Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications
- WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.2 W3C Working Draft 18 December 2019 New
- WAVE – WebAIM's Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool is a suite of evaluation tools that helps authors make their web content more accessible to individuals with disabilities. WAVE can identify many accessibility and Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) errors, but also facilitates human evaluation of web content. New
- Web Accessibility in Mind (WebAIM) has excellent information for the Web designer for accessible sites. The site provides tools and items to consider when designing for the following disability types:
- "Wired Seniors: A fervent few, inspired by family ties", by Susannah Fox, et al., from the Pew Research Center, Internet and Technology, 9 September 2001, found that four million Americans aged 65 and over were online, sending e-mail to family members and surfing for important information. Demographics research report from the Pew Internet & American Life Project. By now, that number has increased significantly.
- World Usability Day Observed each year, it has a specific focus and is honored around the world on the second Thursday of the month of November.
- World Wide Web Usability special issue International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) (1997) 47(1) 1-222 [United Kingdom]
- Word to HTML conversion tool: CZ Document Converter
Making Flash accessible is a good thing. However, accessible Flash is not perceivable by screen-reader users if they don't use Windows. If a screen-reader user needs information that is contained in a Flash presentation, that user needs to be on Windows. Oops.
Everett Zufelt (@ezufelt) brought this to my attention on Twitter today shortly after I shared news from @awkawk about Flash presentations: "Accessible Flash Presentation How To".
Freedom of Choice
The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.
That's a famous quote from Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web. Nowhere does it say "works only with one operating system". Users of assistive technology might want a choice.
The really crucial point here is freedom of choice – people with disabilities should have a freedom of choice when choosing their operating system. After all, sighted people have the choice.
As someone who doesn't use a screen reader, I had long thought that making Flash accessible would solve most issues around Flash for blind or low-vision computer users. Fortunately, expert users of screen readers are on the Internet clarifying matters and clearing up misunderstandings. I appreciate Zufelt setting me straight – and now you – on this issue. Making Flash accessible only helps some of the users.
Having a Choice
What can be done? I won't go into design issues about choosing Flash. Right now, there is a lot of Flash out there and some of it was made accessible. How can screen reader users not on Windows perceive that Flash material?
You still have time to sign the petition from the Mac-cessibility network asking Adobe to commit to accessibility for Flash on Macs. When that petition is presented to Adobe, perhaps they'll consider doing the same thing for Linux.
In his "New approaches to Flash and Java accessibility in the browser on Windows", Marco Zehe expresses hope that "the better support in NVDA for Flash should also be an incentive to Adobe to make Flash accessible on other platforms such as Linux and Mac."
Let's hope that more people in Flash classes ask about accessibility – and on which platforms. People must keep asking these questions so that the outstanding accessibility issues are addressed. This is also an opportunity for software producers to become industry leaders by addressing accessibility routinely from Day 1 of development.
Those who are blind in this matter are not the users, but the ones who are developing software with inaccessible features.
P.S. I snipped Tim Berners-Lee's quote from the pages of W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative.